Paternity tests in any species, including human - Information

What are the basics for paternity testing in any species, including humans?

Molecular tests can determine the paternity of offspring of any species.

These paternity tests are based on differences in nucleic acid sequences, the nucleus of cells. The nucleic acid of cells is distributed on the 46 chromosomes of each cell. In each cell of any animal species there are two similar copies of each chromosome, 23 of them from the father and 23 from the   mother.

To know the paternity of a descendant, it is used to study chromosomal differences in individuals of each species, including humans. As mentioned, a descendant receives a copy of each chromosome from the father and one mother. If we study the nucleic acid sequences of the cells of a descendant, we can detect the characteristics of the copy from the mother, easy to determine when compared with the chromosomes from the mother. The other chromosome, with its characteristics, proceeds from the Father and therefore can be compared with those of / of course / s parent / s under study to prove his paternity. If the characteristics of the chromosome that does not correspond to the mother correspond to the parent study, or with some of the parents in the study, that will be the parent.

What tests are done to determine paternity? - Study of microsatellites

The present usual to compare the sequences of nucleic acids in paternity studies in any species, it is through the test called STR (Short Tandem Repeats; Sequences repeated short). As its name suggests is the study of short sequences of the constituents of nucleic acids (nucleotide) which are repeated along chromosomes. These short sequences are called "microsatellites". To view these microsatellites, in the laboratory the nucleic acid of the cells present in the sample is extracted. Then multiplication (replication or copied many times) of the zones of the sequences of nucleic acids where the nucleotide repeats (microsatellites) is performed. These copies are obtained by a procedure termed "PCR" (polymerase chain reaction; polymerase chain reaction). PCR with thousands of millions of copies of each chromosome microsatellites have obtained, and as a result, can be displayed in the laboratory and compared. However, these copies are mixed and so that they can compare it is necessary to separate them according to size. To this end, methods are used as gel electrophoresis, separating the copies according to their electric charge and molecular size.

Microsatellite patterns obtained from each subject under study paternity compared with each other to determine similarities and differences. In the pattern of microsatellite a descendant must be some that are identical to   the mother. The rest must correspond with the alleged father. If no match, then the individual is not a descendant of the father studied.

What samples are needed for paternity testing? - cells are needed

For paternity testing, it is necessary to have cells from which nucleic acids can be extracted chromosomes. In all species, including human, any biological sample containing cells is suitable to perform these tests. For example , a swab impregnated in cells of the oral mucosa, a blood sample, bristles with hair bulb (root), ........

How reliable are paternity tests? - Very high

These tests have a 100% reliability to exclude paternity, and reliability over 99% to attribute paternity in any species, including human.

Can there be more than one parent to offspring? - Yes, at least it has been shown in cats

The few animal species, such as cats (Felis catus), it has been shown that for a litter of kittens, it has been attributed paternity several parents ( We know of 5 different parents to a litter of six kittens).

For other species, it is usual that each offspring, or litter of several descendants, corresponds to a single parent.

When you would be interested in knowing animal species paternity?

In most cases it is known if the father is of the same race as the mother to establish the pedigree purebreds.

In other interested occasions to know the father, in order to determine the fecundador male among several possible because others are relegated to the reproductive function, as in tigers (Panthera tigris).

What information is required to send to request paternity test? - Form

Must be submitted with the sample PATERN-0003-a PATERN-0003-b (other species), as appropriate form (for the human species) or.

¿Informed consent required? - Yes.

To perform paternity testing in humans, should be sent informed of seniors who perform the testing consent. For minors the authorization required by the mother / parent or guardian (see attached form PATERN-0002).

How long it takes to perform the tests? -minimum 5 days

In IVAMI, the usual time required to perform paternity tests depends on the type of sample received. For buccal samples is less than 7 working days after the sample is received. If we have the results before it would communicate. For other samples, it may take longer for the difficulty DNA extraction.

What have cost paternity testing? - € 90.- per individual.

The cost of testing depends on the number of individuals compare in any species including humans. The cost per individual compared with buccal cell samples, or blood, is 90.- €. For refer hairs have an additional cost per sample 30.- € by the difficulty of extraction of DNA in the case of persons is VAT exempt. For other animal species VAT 21% should be added.

How reports are delivered? -email and / or regular mail.

The reports are sent by email and / or mail, as requested by the customer.

How do I get the sample and shipping how to request paternity testing?

It depends on the sample to be sent.

Buccal cells: if you decide to send a sample of buccal cells, has acquired a cotton swab or sterile Dacron at a pharmacy, for each of the individuals who are going to take the sample. With swab which will take the sample from an individual held by its rod, without touching with fingers the end of cotton, it has to perform an intense friction, rotating it through the buccal mucosa, to be impregnated with cells. Air dry long enough and then insert it in its wrapper, identifying it as you want to appear in the lab report. Repeat with the other individuals who wish to analyze. Conserve swabs buccal cell samples in a refrigerator until referral to the laboratory for testing. To send to the laboratory, they must enter into a padded envelope with the shipping address indicated below.

Blood has to extract the blood sample with a device comprising anticoagulant (EDTA), preferably a plastic tube vacutainer type or syringe and needle, and deposit the collected blood tube with EDTA anticoagulant, identifying the container with the data you want to appear in the report. Insert the tube with the blood in another protective container. Repeat the process with other individuals. Finally, introducing the protective container with tubes with blood in a padded envelope of appropriate size, or cooled as the container shown in document PATERN-0003-a (human sample) or PATERN-0003-b (other species).

Hairs: whether to send hairs, removing at least 30 hairs from each individual study, balling to have their hair bulb (root), and introduced into a container of sterile plastic that can be purchased at a pharmacy, and identify the container with the data you want to appear in the report. Finally, insert the plastic container in a padded envelope of appropriate size. Repeat the process with other individuals and refer to the laboratory for testing.

Other signs: check by mail to .

Shipping: when you have the envelope with all samples has to write the shipping address and the sender, and call (96-169 February 17), so we can send our courier (is included in the cost of paternity testing).

             Shipping Address:

             Valencian Institute of Microbiology

farmhouse Romeral

Ctra. De Bétera San Antonio km. 0.3

(with entrance rotunda Bétera)

46117-Bétera (Valencia)

Other questions?

If further clarifications are needed you can send an email to , and   We will answer as soon as possible.