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Arbovirus (Arthropod Borne Virus): molecular diagnosis (RT-PCR and sequencing); IgG and IgM antibodies to Tick-borne encephalitis encephalitis; Type specific antibodies by neutralization for Chikungunya virus, Mayaro, Zika and West Nile.

Information 09/05/15.

The term Arbovirus is an epidemiological term corresponding to the initial Arthropod Borne Virus, ie arthropod - borne viruses. There are many arthropod - borne viruses, families and genera belonging to very different viruses.

Family Flaviviridae - Genus Flavivirus.

Togaviridae family - Genus Alphavirus.

Bunyaviridae family - Genres Phlebovirus and Bunyavirus.

Family Reoviridae - Gender Orbivirus.

Family Rhabdoviridae -

Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae)

They are a broad group of arthropod - borne viruses, whose characteristics being covered virus, ss RNA (single stranded), positive polarity (its RNA acts as a messenger RNA). Many have been reported, of which about 30 can cause human disease.

Many of them produce asymptomatic infections, and others lead to a disease whose clinical characteristics are variable and can lead to a fever or not accompanied by rash and arthralgia, or a serious condition that can be life threatening as is encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever.

Flavivirus leading producers of human diseases, their arthropod vectors and their preferred places of endemicity are (alphabetical order of abbreviations and English names):

Alphavirus (family Togaviridae)

They are a large group of virus (> 28 species) transmitted by arthropods, whose characteristics being covered with single - stranded RNA virus positive sign (+ ss RNA).

Many of them produce asymptomatic infections, and others lead to a disease whose clinical characteristics are variable and can lead to a fever accompanied by arthralgia and sometimes maculopapular rash or a serious condition that can be life threatening as is encephalitis .

Usually they cause two different types of disease:

      1. Persistent febrile illness with arthralgia (eg -MAYV-Mayaro virus and its subspecies A virus -UNAV-).
      1. Encephalitis, with or without demyelination (eg VEEV, EEEV, WEEV).

In general, each Alphavirus cause one of these two patterns of disease. Alphavirus other unrelated to disease (eg Aura virus or Pixuna virus).

Alphavirus leading producers of human diseases, their arthropod vectors and their preferred places of endemicity are (alphabetical order of abbreviations and English names):

The Alphavirus have been subdivided into seven complexes that include each one species and in turn some virus subtypes described would be others.

      1. Barma Forest virus complex: Barma Forest virus species.
      2. Eastern equine encephalitis virus complex: Eastern equine encephalitis virus species, with 7 antigenic types.
      3. Middelburg complex virus: Middelburg virus species. For some it belongs to the complex Semliki Forest virus.
      4. Ndumu complex virus: Ndumu virus species.
      5. Semliki Forest virus complex: Bebaru species; chikungunya; Mayaro (subtype A); O'Nyong'Nyong (subtype Igbo Ora); Ross River (subtypes Bebaru, Getah and Sagiyama); Semliki (virus subtype Me Tri).
      6. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitris complex virus: Cabassou species, Everglades, Mosso das Pedras, Mucambo, Paramana, Pixuna, Rio Black, Trocará (subtype Bijou Bridge), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.
      7. Western equine encephalitis virus complex: Aura species, Bananki, Kyzylagach, Sindbis, Ockelbo, Whataroa. Recombinant viruses exist in this complex: Buggy Creek, Fort Morgan, Hihglands J and Western equine encephalitis.

Bunyaviruses and Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae)

They are a broad group of arthropod - borne viruses, whose characteristics being virus covered with RNA ss (single - stranded) of negative polarity (the RNA does not act as messenger RNA), and its genome is divided into three segments (L, M, S).

Many of them produce asymptomatic infections, and others lead to a disease whose clinical characteristics are variable and can lead to a fever or not accompanied by rash and arthralgia, or a serious condition that can be life threatening as is encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever.

Bunyaviridae leading producers of human diseases, their arthropod vectors and their preferred places of endemicity are:

Phlebovirus:

 

Bunyavirus:

 

Orbivirus (Family Reoviridae)

They are a broad group of arthropod - borne viruses, whose characteristics being covered virus, ss RNA (single stranded).

Many of them produce asymptomatic infections, and others lead to a disease whose clinical characteristics are variable and can lead to a fever or not accompanied by rash and arthralgia, or a serious condition that can be life threatening as is encephalitis or a hemorrhagic fever.

Orbivirus leading producers of human diseases, their arthropod vectors and their preferred places of endemicity are:

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