Instituto Valenciano de Microbiología

Masía El Romeral
Ctra. de Bétera a San Antonio Km. 0.3
46117 Bétera (Valencia)
Phone. 96 169 17 02
Fax 96 169 16 37
CIF B-96337217

Picornaviridae (Enterovirus A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, Rhinovirus A, B and C; Hepatovirus; Kobuvirus -virus Aichi-; Parechovirus; Cardiovirus, Aphthovirus; Cosavirus; ... ..) (formerly poliovirus, Coxsackie A and B, ECHO virus, ...). Molecular diagnosis (RT-PCR) and molecular typing (sequencing)

Information 14/04/08.

Picornaviridae (Picornavirus)

The hepatitis A virus is the cause of the most serious infection related to the consumption of bivalve molluscs, producing occasional outbreaks, affecting many individuals. This virus replicates in the intestinal mucosa before spreading and affect the liver, so it is eliminated in the faeces before it filed the box hepatitis in the patient.

Picornaviridae (usually called picornaviruses) are very numerous viruses that cause human diseases in animals, plants and insects. These viruses are named by their small size ( "peak") and possess an RNA genome ( "pico-RNA viruses"). Picornaviruses cause human disease very different from respiratory processes similar to common colds, to polio. These viruses affect many people and are found in respiratory secretions (saliva, sputum, nasal mucus), and feces of infected people. Species any species Enterovirus A, B, C, D, or J, are transmitted through the fecal-oral route and causes mild respiratory infections (common cold), and mouth disease (disease hand, foot and mouth ), hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, neonatal septic disease, and flaccid paralysis.

Two genera Enterovirus and Rhinovirus, based on the ability to infect the enteric tract (replicate 37 and be stable to gastric acid pH), or its ability to infect only the nose and pharynx (by replication at 33 ° C and quenched initially differentiated at acid pH). Enteroviruses were differentiated by their pathogenicity in four groups: poliovirus, Coxsackie A (CA), coxsackievirus B (CB) and Echovirus (Enteric Cytopathogen Human Orphan). However, overlapping features has motivated its reclassification, currently based on phylogenetic studies. As an example, Poliovirus, previously considered a species within the genus Enterovirus, currently considered three serotypes of human enteroviruses species C. Similarly, coxsackie A serotypes have been distributed among the human enteroviruses species A and C. Human Enterovirus Coxsackie B group (CB 1 to 6), like the 28 serotypes Echovirus (E1 to E33, except 8, 10, 22, 23 and 28), are considered human serotypes Enterovirus species B. Similarly, some of the previous enterovirus serotypes (EV-A71, and others) are considered serotypes species Enterovirus human a, while other serotypes considered to be within the species human Enterovirus B, others in the species human Enterovirus C, others in human species, D and other species Enterovirus in J. Similarly over 100 serotypes Rhinovirus have been distributed in three species (Rhinovirus a, B and C). Currently, their number has increased a lot and continue describing species that do not belong to any of the genera admitted so far (eg Kosavirus, Cosavirus, Parechovirus, ...).

Main diseases caused by Enterovirus:

Common cold; Nonspecific febrile illness; Aseptic meningitis; Bornholm disease or epidemic Pleurodynia; Pericarditis and / or myocarditis; Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis; herpangina; Foot and mouth disease; Encephalitis; Hepatitis A; poliomyelitis; Polio Syndrome-like; Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Diabetes mellitus tipe 1.

Processes caused by Hepatovirus (hepatitis A virus)

Viral hepatitis A.

Processes caused by Kobuvirus (Aichi virus - Aichivirus, 3 serotypes)

Gastroenteritis Aichivirus serotype 1 (AIV1).

Processes caused by Parechovirus (Human Parechovirus, 14 serotypes, HPEV 1-14)

Mild gastroenteritis; Mild respiratory infections; Myocarditis;


Processes caused by Cosavirus (24 serotypes)

Diarrheal gastroenteritis.

Processes caused by Cardiovirus (Encephalomyocarditis virus, two types - EMCV 1 & 2; Theilovirus, 12 types).

Encephalomiocarditis (EMC 1 & 2); Vilyuisk encephalomyelitis virus

(Theilovirus) Vilyuisk encephalitis; Saffold virus (SAFV) (Theilovirus).

Transmission Picornaviridae (Picornavirus)

Direct contact person to person through respiratory secretions,

conjunctival, ... .; Via fecal-oral through contaminated water or

contaminated food; Indirect contact through objects


Tests in IVAMI:

In IVAMI we can realize the isolation of those who are cultivated in the usual cell lines. However, when not being able to cultivate some of them in the usual cell lines, we recommend the molecular diagnosis performed by RT-PCR, conserved gene, and then sequencing the amplicon obtained to define the species Enterovirus A to D; Rhinovirus A, B or C; and the type of causal virus.

Samples recommended:

The / s sample / s depends / n of the pathology suffered by the patient.

  • Gastroenteritis issued stool or rectal sample after crossing anal sphincter, taken Dacron swab.
  • Meningitis or encephalitis: cerebrospinal fluid obtained by puncture.
  • Respiratory infections: pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal exudate Dacron swab.
  • Nonspecific febrile illness: pharyngeal exudate, or better nasopharyngeal swab taken with dacron.
  • Herpangina: oral lesions exudate taken Dacron swab.
  • Poliomyelitis or polio-like syndrome: cerebrospinal fluid taken by puncture.
  • Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: conjunctival swab exudate taken Dacron
  • Pericarditis or myocarditis: pericardial fluid puncture.
  • Cold with rhinitis nasal exudate taken Dacron swab.
  • Glosopeda: oral lesions exudate taken Dacron swab.

Type of packaging:

Sterile, appropriate to the type of samples.

Preservation of samples:

Frozen and refrigerated shipment to the laboratory.

Cost of testing: