Picornaviridae (Enterovirus A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, Rhinovirus A, B and C; Hepatovirus; Kobuvirus -virus Aichi-; Parechovirus; Cardiovirus, Aphthovirus; Cosavirus; ... ..) (formerly Poliovirus, Coxsackie A and B, ECHO virus, ...). Molecular diagnosis (RT-PCR); Molecular identification (PCR and sequencing)


Information 08-04-2014.


Picornaviridae (Picornavirus)

Picornaviridae (usually called picornaviruses) are very numerous viruses that cause human diseases in animals, plants and insects. These viruses are named by their small size ( "peak") and possess an RNA genome ( "pico-RNA viruses"). Picornaviruses cause human disease very different from respiratory processes similar to common colds, to polio. These viruses affect many people and are found in respiratory secretions (saliva, sputum, nasal mucus), and feces of infected people. Species any species Enterovirus A, B, C, D, or J, are transmitted through the fecal-oral route and causes mild respiratory infections (common cold), and mouth disease (disease hand, foot and mouth ), hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, neonatal septic disease, and flaccid paralysis.

Two genera Enterovirus and Rhinovirus, based on the ability to infect the enteric tract (replicate 37 and be stable to gastric acid pH), or its ability to infect only the nose and pharynx (by replication at 33 ° C and quenched initially differentiated at acid pH). Enteroviruses were differentiated by their pathogenicity in four groups: poliovirus, Coxsackie A (CA), coxsackievirus B (CB) and Echovirus (Enteric Cytopathogen Human Orphan). However, overlapping features has motivated its reclassification, currently based on phylogenetic studies. As an example, Poliovirus, previously considered a species within the genus Enterovirus, currently considered three serotypes of human enteroviruses species C. Similarly, coxsackie A serotypes have been distributed among the human enteroviruses species A and C. Human Enterovirus Coxsackie B group (CB 1 to 6), like the 28 serotypes Echovirus (E1 to E33, except 8, 10, 22, 23 and 28), are considered human serotypes Enterovirus species B. Similarly, some of the previous enterovirus serotypes (EV-A71, and others) are considered serotypes species Enterovirus human a, while other serotypes considered to be within the species human Enterovirus B, others in the species human Enterovirus C, others in human species, D and other species Enterovirus in J. Similarly over 100 serotypes Rhinovirus have been distributed in three species (Rhinovirus a, B and C). Currently, their number has increased a lot and continue describing species that do not belong to any of the genera admitted so far (eg Kosavirus, Cosavirus, Parechovirus, ...).

Here we present the different genera and species of the Picornaviridae (picornaviruses) family, including human pathogens viruses.

genus Enterovirus

Enterovirus A (formerly Human enterovirus A):

23 types: coxsackievirus A2 (CV-A2), CV-A3, CV-A4, CV-A5, CV-A6, CV-A7, CV-A8, CV-A10, CV-A12, CV-A14, CV-A16 , enterovirus (EV) A71, A76-EV, EV-A89, A90-EV, EV-A91, A92-EV, EV-114, EV-A119, SV19, SV43, SV46 and BA13.

Enterovirus B (formerly Human enterovirus B):

60 types: coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1), CV-B2, CV-B3, CV-B4, CV-B5 (incl. Swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV]), CV-B6, CV-A9, echovirus 1 (E -1; incl E-8), E-2, E-3, E-4, E-5, E-6, E-7, E-8 (now E-1), E-9 (incl.. CV-A23), E-11, E-12, E-13, E-14, E-15, E-16, E-17, E-18, E-19, E-20, E-21, E -24, E-25, E-26, E-27, E-28 (currently Rhinovirus A1), E-29, E-30, E-31, E-32, E-33, B69 enterovirus (EV-B69 ), EV-B73, EV-B74, EV-B75, EV-B77, EV-B78, EV-B79, EV-B80, EV-B81, EV-B82, EV-B83, EV-B84, EV-B85, EV-B86, B87-EV, EV-B88, B93-EV, EV-B97, B98-EV, EV-B100, B101-EV, EV-B106, B107-EV, EV-B110 and SA5.

Enterovirus C (formerly Human enterovirus C):

23 types: poliovirus (PV) 1, PV-2, PV-3, coxsackievirus A1 (CV-A1), CV-A11, CV-A13, CV-A17, CV-A19, CV-A20, CV-A21, CV -A22, CV-A24, EV-C95, C96-EV, EV-C99, EV-C102, C104-EV, EV-C105, C109-EV, EV-C113, C116-EV, EV-C117 and EV-118 .

Enterovirus D (formerly Human enterovirus D):

5 types: D68 enterovirus (EV-D68), EV-D70, D94-EV, EV-D111 and D120 EV-.

Enterovirus E (formerly Bovine enterovirus group A):

4 types (proposed): E1 enterovirus (EV-E1), EV-E2, E3 and EV-EV-E4.

Enterovirus F (Bovine enterovirus before group B):

6 types (proposed): F1 enterovirus (EV-F1), EV-F2, F3-EV, EV-F4, F5 and EV-EV-E6.

Enterovirus G (Porcine enteroviruses before B):

6 types: enterovirus (EV) G1 to G6 (porcine enterovirus before 9-10, 14-16 and ovine enterovirus 1).

Enterovirus H (Simian enteroviruses before A):

1 type: H1 enterovirus (EV-H1).

Enterovirus J :

6 types: simian virus 6 (SV6), J103 enterovirus (EV-J103), EV-J108, J112-EV, EV-J115 and J121-EV.

Rhinovirus A (formerly Human rhinovirus A):

77 types: human rhinovirus (HRV) A1 (prior Echovirus 28), A2, A7, A8, A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, A15, A16, A18, A19, A20, A21, A22, A23, A24, A25 , A28, A29, A30, A31, A32, A33, A34, A36, A38, A39, A40, A41, A43, A44, A45, A46, A47, A49, A50, A51, A53, A54, A55, A56, A57 , A58, A59, A60, A61, A62, A63, A64, A65, A66, A67, A68, A71, A73, A74, A75, A76, A77, A78, A80, A81, A82, A85, A88, A89, A90 , A94, A95, A96, A98, A100, A101, A102 and A103.

Rhinovirus B (formerly Human rhinovirus B):

25 types: human rhinovirus (HRV) B3, B4, B5, B6, B14, B17, B26, B27, B35, B37, B42, B48, B52, B69, B70, B72, B79, B83, B84, B86, B91, B92, B93, B97 and B99.

Rhinovirus C (formerly Human rhinovirus C):

51 types: human rhinovirus (HRV) C1-C51.

gender Hepatovirus

Hepatitis A virus

1 type hepatitis A virus (HAV) 1.

gender Kobuvirus

Aichivirus A (formerly Aichi virus)

3 types: Aichi virus (AIV) 1 kobuvirus canine 1 (CaKV-1) and murine kobuvirus 1 (MuKV-1).

Aichivirus B (before kobuvirus Bovine) (bovine Kobuvirus)

2 types: bovine kobuvirus (BKV) 1 and ovine kobuvirus 1 (OKV-1).

Aichivirus C

1 type: porcine kobuvirus 1 (PKV-1).

gender Parechovirus

Human parechovirus (human Parechovirus)

14 types: human parechovirus (HPEV) 1-14.

Ljungan virus

4 types: Ljungan virus (LV) 1-4.

gender Aphthovirus

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (glosopeda)

7 types: O, A, C, Southern African Territories (SAT) 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and Asia 1.

gender Cardiovirus

Encephalomyocarditis virus (encephalomyocarditis virus)

2 types: encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 1 and EMCV-2. Note: Columbia SK virus , Maus Elberfeld virus and Mengovirus are EMCV-1 strains.


12 types: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), Thera virus (TRV), Saffold virus (SAFV) , 1-9.

gender Cosavirus

Cosavirus A

24 types: cosavirus A1 (SVOCs-A1) to SVOCs-A24.

Main diseases caused by Enterovirus:

  • Nonspecific febrile illness: is the most common disease caused by enterovirus infection. In addition to fever, patients report muscle pain, sore throat, gastrointestinal disturbance, headaches and abdominal discomfort.
  • Aseptic meningitis: Enteroviruses are the leading cause of aseptic meningitis in children.
  • Disease Bornholm or devil 's grip: characterized by intense pain in chest and abdomen along with fever, and sometimes nausea, headaches and vomiting.
  • Pericarditis and / or myocarditis fever, dyspnea and chest pain. Arrhythmia, heart failure and myocardial infarction may occur.
  • Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis.
  • Herpangina exanthema and pharynx Vescular oral cavity, with fever, pharyngitis, discomfort, and often dysphagia, loss of appetite, pain, and headaches. It is a self - limiting process about 3 to 4 days (Coxsackie A).
  • Mouth disease (disease hand, foot and mouth) (Coxsackie A virus or EV71).
  • Encephalitis is rare to be caused by Enterovirus. When it occurs, usually by echovirus 9 .
  • Hepatitis A (Hepatovius: hepatitis A virus; 1 type).
  • Poliomyelitis (Enterovirus C: Poliovirus -PV- 1, 2 or 3).
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome: described associated with acute or gastrointestinal infections associated with Enterovirus.
  • Diabetes mellitus tipe 1 : Enterovirus described that could penetrate pancreas and destroy the immune system producing beta cells when they try to remove insulin Enterovirus.

Processes caused by Hepatovirus (hepatitis A virus)

  • Viral hepatitis A.

Processes caused by Kobuvirus (Aichi virus - Aichivirus, 3 serotypes)

  • Gastroenteritis Aichivirus serotype 1 (AIV1).

Processes caused by Parechovirus (Human Parechovirus, 14 serotypes, HPEV 1-14)

  • Mild gastroenteritis.
  • Mild respiratory infections.

Processes caused by Cosavirus (24 serotypes)

  • Diarrheal gastroenteritis.

Processes caused by Cardiovirus (Encephalomyocarditis virus, two types - EMCV 1 & 2; Theilovirus, 12 kinds)

  • Encephalomiocarditis (EMC 1 & 2).
  • Vilyuisk encephalomyelitis virus (Theilovirus): Vilyuisk encephalitis.
  • Saffold virus (SAFV) (Theilovirus) found in feces, but no pathogen recognition).

Transmission Picornaviridae (Picornavirus)

Direct contact person to person through respiratory secretions, conjunctival, ....

Via fecal-oral through contaminated water or contaminated food.

Indirect contact through contaminated objects.

Tests in IVAMI:

            In IVAMI we can realize the isolation of those who are cultivated in the usual cell lines. However, when not being able to cultivate some of them in the usual cell lines, we recommend the molecular diagnosis performed by RT-PCR, conserved gene, and then sequencing the amplicon obtained to define the species Enterovirus A to D; Rhinovirus A, B or C; and the type of causal virus.

Samples recommended:

The / s sample / s depends / n of the pathology suffered by the patient.

  • Gastroenteritis issued stool or rectal sample after crossing anal sphincter, taken Dacron swab.
  • Meningitis or encephalitis: cerebrospinal fluid obtained by puncture.
  • Respiratory infections: pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal exudate Dacron swab.
  • Nonspecific febrile illness: pharyngeal exudate, or better nasopharyngeal swab taken with dacron.
  • Herpangina: oral lesions exudate taken Dacron swab.
  • Poliomyelitis or polio-like syndrome: cerebrospinal fluid taken by puncture.
  • Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: conjunctival swab exudate taken Dacron
  • Pericarditis or myocarditis: pericardial fluid puncture.
  • Cold with rhinitis nasal exudate taken Dacron swab.
  • Glosopeda: oral lesions exudate taken Dacron swab.

Container type: sterile, appropriate to the type of samples.

Preservation and shipment of sample:


  • Refrigerated (preferred) for less than 2 days.
  • Frozen more than 48 hours.

Shipment to the laboratory:


  • Refrigerated.


Delivery term:


  • RT-PCR: 48 hours.
  • Molecular identification: 72 to 96 hours.


Cost of testing: