Anellovirus II (Torque Teno -TTV- virus, virus TTMDV- Torque Teno Midi and Mini Torque Teno virus -TTMV-): Presence in biological fluids and tissues. Orphan Virus for disease. Molecular diagnosis (PCR).
The Anellovirus were discovered in 1997 in a patient suffering from post - transfusion hepatitis non AG, and was originally called Torque Teno virus (TTV). Subsequently, a similar virus with a smaller genome was found and named Torque Teno Mini-virus (TTMV); and 2007, a virus with a genome size intermediate between the above two was called Torque Teno Midi virus (TTMDV).
These (TTV TTMDV and TTMV) virus, are naked viruses with genome DNA single stranded, circular negative - sense (ss -DNA). Currently are grouped in the Anelloviridae family, three genera: AlphaTorquevirus -virus TTV- (kb genome from 3.8 to 3.9); betaTorquevirus -TTMV- (3.2 kb genome); and gammaTorquevirus -TTMDV- (2.9 kb genome to 2.8).
Although initially associated with post - transfusion hepatitis, that relationship has been discarded later. It is now considered an orphan virus (Orphan virus), for disease as found in many liquid biological samples and tissue samples, such as plasma, serum, nasopharyngeal aspirate, saliva, bone marrow, breast milk, lymph nodes, lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, semen, cervical fluid, bile, .... Also it found dsDNA virus in hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, mononuclear cells in peripheral blood -PBMCs-, etc., as an indication of replication in such cells.
It has been found higher viral load in patients with fevers, bronchopneumonia, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies intense, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and polycythemia vera, periodontitis in gingiva, etc., as an indication that inflammatory processes facilitate viral replication.
In the early stages of life in normal newborns, it seems to reach a higher incidence at 42 months of age (90% possess the virus, compared to 6% and 34% per month of life and 4 months, respectively) . These findings indicate human transmission in the first months of life, admitting that the main route of transmission would be respiratory secretions. In addition, other routes of transmission, fecal-oral contact between mother and child, family contacts, and even though in very small proportion, the vertical transmission mother-fetus allowed.
Tests in IVAMI:
Any liquid or tissue sample can be processed to Anelovirus (TTV TTMV or TTMDV) deposit 1 to 2 mL of liquid sample in a tube or in a sterile container, preferably of polypropylene to prevent breakage, containing 3 mL of medium universal transport, or tissue biopsy.
Preservation and shipment of sample:
Refrigerated (preferred) for less than 2 days.
Frozen: over 2 days.
Molecular targets for PCR: 48 to 72 hours.
Cost of the test: