Abdominal wall defect (Abdominal wall defect)
A defect in the abdominal wall is an opening in the abdomen through which may project multiple abdominal organs. This opening varies in size and usually can be diagnosed early fetal development, usually between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of gestation. There are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis.
Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the abdominal wall where the cord joins the abdomen. Organs, usually the intestine, the stomach and the liver, protrude through the opening in the umbilical cord and are covered by the same protective membrane covering the umbilical cord. Fetuses with omphalocele may have intrauterine growth retardation and may be born prematurely. Often, individuals with omphalocele have multiple birth defects, including heart birth defect. Besides, underdevelopment of the lungs is often associated with omphalocele because abdominal organs typically provide a framework for the growth of the chest wall. When these organs are located outside, the chest wall does not form properly, providing a smaller than normal for the lungs to develop space. Consequently, many infants with omphalocele have respiratory failure and may require mechanical ventilation. Rarely, affected individuals who have respiratory problems in children suffering from recurrent lung infections or asthma later in life. Affected children often have gastrointestinal problems such as gastroesophageal reflux and difficulty feeding; These problems may persist even after treatment of omphalocele. Large omphaloceles, or those associated with multiple additional health problems, are most commonly associated with fetal death in cases where the isolated omphalocele occurs.
Omphalocele is a characteristic of many genetic syndromes. Nearly half of individuals with omphalocele have impaired due to an extra copy of one chromosome in each of their cells (trisomy). Up to a third of people born with an omphalocele have Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Affected individuals may have additional signs and symptoms associated with these genetic diseases.
Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall, usually right cord, through which the large and small intestines protrude, but sometimes can also protuir other organs. There is no membrane covering exposed organs in gastroschisis. Individuals who have gastroschisis rarely have other birth defects and chromosomal abnormalities or genetic disease. most affected individuals have IUGR and are small at birth, and many affected children are born prematurely.
Gastroschisis, the protruding organs are not covered by a protective membrane and are susceptible to damage due to direct contact with the amniotic fluid in the uterus. The components of the amniotic fluid can trigger immune responses and inflammatory reactions to the intestines that can damage tissue. Constrict around the organs exposed in the opening of the abdominal wall in fetal development, it can also contribute to organ damage. Peristalsis causes intestinal damage in most children with gastroschisis. These individuals generally improves peristalsis in a few months and intestinal muscle contractions are normalized. Rarely, children with gastroschisis have intestinal atresia or twisting of the intestine. After birth, these intestinal malformations can cause problems with the digestive function, increased intestinal tissue loss and short bowel syndrome, which occurs when they are absent from areas of the small intestine, causing dehydration and poor absorption of nutrients. Depending on the severity of the condition, it may require intravenous feeding. The health of an individual with gastroschisis depends largely on the degree of damage to the intestine before birth. When the defect in the abdominal wall is repaired and normal bowel function is restored, the vast majority of those affected have no health problems related to the defect repaired later in life.
So far, they have not been found responsible for the defect in the abdominal wall genetic mutations. It is likely that multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development of this disorder. Both omphalocele and gastroschisis are due to different alterations in fetal development.
Omphalocele an error occurs during the development of the digestive tract. During the formation of the abdominal cavity in the sixth to tenth week of fetal development, usually the intestines protrude through the umbilical cord, but recede back into the abdomen as development continues. Omphalocele occurs when the intestines do not shrink back in the abdomen, but remain in the umbilical cord. Other abdominal organs can protrude through this opening, causing the condition of organs which occurs in omphalocele.
The error resulting in the formation of gastroschisis is unknown. It is believed to be an interruption in blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract or a lack of development or injury of gastrointestinal tissue in early fetal development. For unknown reasons, women under age 20 are at increased risk of giving birth to a child with gastroschisis. Other risk factors in pregnancy can include taking drugs or smoking vasoconstrictor, but have not confirmed these risk factors.
Most cases of abdominal wall defects are sporadic, meaning that occur in people with no history of disease in your family. It is likely that several genetic and environmental factors play a role in determining the risk of developing this process. When a defect in the abdominal wall, most often omphalocele, is a characteristic of a genetic entity, it is inherited in the pattern of that entity.