Bipolar disorder (bipolar disorder)
Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes exaggerated changes in mood, energy and behavior. This disorder occurs most often in late adolescence or early adulthood, although symptoms can start at any time of life.
People with bipolar disorder have both manic episodes, such as depressive episodes. These episodes can last from hours to weeks, and many people have no symptoms between episodes. Manic episodes are characterized by increased energy and activity, irritability, restlessness, inability to sleep and reckless behavior. Depressive episodes are marked by low energy and activity, a sense of hopelessness and an inability to perform everyday tasks. Often, people with bipolar disorder have repeated thoughts of death and suicide, and have a much higher risk of dying by suicide than the general population. Manic and depressive episodes may include psychotic, such as hallucinations or delusions symptoms. Mixed episodes, which have characteristics of both manic depressive episodes as also occur in some affected individuals.
Often, bipolar disorder occurs along with other mental health disorders, including anxiety disorders (such as panic attacks), behavioral disorders (such as hyperactivity disorder attention deficit) and substance abuse.
Little is known about the genetics of bipolar disorder. Some studies suggest that variations in many genes, each with a small effect, can be combined to increase the risk of developing the disorder. However, most of these genetic variations have been identified in individual studies, and further research not confirmed. It is unclear what contribution each of these changes to the risk of developing the disorder. Some of the genetic changes associated with bipolar disorder have also been found in people with other common mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia.
Studies suggest that certain non - genetic factors also contribute to the risk of developing bipolar disorder. Stressful life events a person, like a death in the family, can trigger symptoms of the disease. Substance abuse and traumatic head injuries have also been associated with bipolar disorder. It is likely that environmental factors interact with genetic actors to determine the overall risk of developing this disease.
The inheritance pattern of bipolar disorder is unclear. Overall, the risk of developing this disease is higher for first - degree relatives of affected individuals compared with the general public. In addition, for unknown reasons, the risk of inheriting the disorder appears to be higher in some families than others. However, most people who have a close relative with bipolar disorder will not develop the disease. Many people affected have relatives with other moods, such as anxiety and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia). These processes may occur in families because somehow share some genetic risk factors with bipolar disorder.