Bordetella avium - Molecular diagnosis (PCR)
Bordetella avium is a highly contagious gram - negative bacterium Bordetella genus, family Alcaligenaceae, with a worldwide distribution. Bordetella avium mainly affects birds, both wild and domestic, causing bordetellosis (also called turkey coryza or infectious coryza), an avian respiratory highly contagious upper tract. Although Bordetella avium looks similar to its human counterpart, Bordetella pertussis behavior, there have been no reports of Bordetella avium infection in people.
This highly contagious organism colonizes the host trachea, usually chickens, turkeys and other poultry. It is easily transmitted by direct contact or through the air, water and waste, which can cause rapid spread of the disease in pens with a high population density. After infection, Bordetella avium preferentially binds ciliated tracheal epithelial cells. Later, the death of ciliated cells occurs, which is believed to contribute to the signs associated with bordetellosis (eg, cough and oculonasal exudation).
There have been reports of birds infected by Bordetella avium with signs and symptoms including cough, oculonasal exudation, foamy conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis and temporomandibular osteomyelitis. In addition, there may be submandibular edema, dark spots around the eyes and nostrils. In the final phase of infection, behavioral changes including generalized depression and decreased activity and appetite occur. Morbidity can reach 100% within 24 hours after transmission. Regarding mortality, it is believed that bordetellosis is a disease with low mortality. However, mortality in infected birds may rise if ventilation and environmental conditions are poor.
Recommended tests for diagnosis:
Cultivation is difficult, the special requirements of this bacterium, and its lability, which can not survive in the sample during the transfer of the sample to the laboratory. Detection antibody (ELISA), requires time to be detected. Therefore, the current molecular diagnostic methods (PCR), are the most convenient.
Tests in IVAMI:
- Molecular diagnosis (PCR), to detect Bordetella avium DNA.
- Exudate nasopharyngeal swab taken.
Preservation and shipment of sample:
- Refrigerated (preferred) for less than 2 days.
- Frozen: over 2 days.
- Molecular diagnosis (PCR): 24 to 48 hours.
Cost of the test: