Anaplasma platys - Molecular diagnostics (PCR)
Anaplasma Platies is classified in the genus Anaplasma, family Anaplasmataceae the order rickettsial organism. Anaplasma Platies is a Gram - negative intracellular bacterium, located in countries in Europe, Asia and South America, which causes infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia in dogs, but they have also recorded cases of infection in cats and sheep.
The life cycle of this organism involves an intermediate host where mature, usually ticks Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor genres, which transmit the infection during their feeding. It is the only intracellular infectious agent in humans or animals described specifically infects platelets.
In animals, Anaplasma platys transmission through ticks, causes a mild clinical disease whose symptoms are severe fever, lethargy, pallor of the mucous membranes, petechial hemorrhages, epistaxis, and lymphadenopathy. As with other tick - borne diseases, coinfection of Anaplasma Platies with other infectious agents such as Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Borrelia species can lead to more severe clinical manifestations.
Usually, clinical signs appear between 8 and 14 days after the transmission, occurring in circulating platelets body, which causes severe thrombocytopenia, usually <20,000 / uL. Platelet counts remain below 20,000 / uL one to two days. The organisms are rapidly cleared from the peripheral blood and platelet counts increase, reaching a normal value in three or four days. Later, the bodies will reappear in a range of 1 to 2 weeks, and the process is repeated, causing a cyclic thrombocytopenia. The percentage of parasitized platelets and severity of thrombocytopenic episodes decrease with subsequent cycles of parasitemia.
Recommended tests for diagnosis:
The diagnosis is based on microscopic identification of clusters of intracellular bacteria (morulae) in neutrophils of saguíneos smear immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or molecular diagnostic methods (PCR).
There appears to be some cross - reactivity between Anaplasma platys and Anaplasma phagocytophilum with SNAP 4Dx assay. With this trial, many animals infected with Anaplasma Platies have tested positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The organisms are closely related and obviously share antigenic epitopes which give cross - reactivity in ELISA antibody tests. However, the signs associated with thrombocytopenia are those associated with infection by Anaplasma Platies.
Tests in IVAMI:
- Molecular diagnosis (PCR), to detect Anaplasma platys DNA.
- Whole blood collected with EDTA (2 to 5 mL).
Preservation and shipment of sample:
- Refrigerated (preferred) for less than 2 days (essential for microscopic examination).
- Frozen: over 2 days (for molecular diagnostic tests only).
- Molecular diagnosis (PCR): 24 to 48 hours.
Cost of the test: