Bartonella clarridgeiae - Molecular diagnosis (PCR)
Clarridgeiae Bartonella is a Gram - negative bacterium of the genus Bartonella, family Bartonellaceae, with a worldwide distribution. Bartonella clarridgeiae primarily affects dogs and cats causing bartonelosis or cat-scratch disease (CSD), although it is an important emerging disease in people. Currently, they described at least 20 species or subspecies of Bartonella, most of which are zoonotic agents. Of these 20 species or subspecies, at least 8 infect humans.
The life cycle of this microorganism involves intermediate host where mature, typically insect vectors arthropods. It is believed that fleas are the main vector in cats. Also, Bartonella clarridgeiae can be found in the environment as well as the skin, nails, and paws of cats. As a result, infected nails and saliva of cats are transmission routes after a bite or scratch. After infection, Bartonella clarridgeiae colonizes endothelial cells. Subsequently, a part of the population of Bartonella clarridgeiae of endothelial cells in the bloodstream, where it is released infect erythrocytes . It is when bacteria invade and divide inside of a phagosome into erythrocytes. Subsequently, the bacteria multiply inside the erythrocytes until they reach a critical population. Once Bartonella clarridgeiae comes out of erythrocytes reinfect endothelial cells, which keeps the infectious cycle.
Although Bartonella clarridgeiae can infect both animals and humans, animals tend to be asymptomatic carriers. However, there have been cases in which can cause liver disease, blindness and neuritis. Meanwhile in people who can be infected by flea bites or through a scratch or bite of an infected cat, after an incubation period of about 5 to 20 days they are generally observed small erythematous papules or pustules in site of the bite or scratch. Intravascular persistent infection by Bartonella clarridgeiae can cause hemolytic anemia, septicemia, endocarditis, osteolysis, bacillary angiomatosis, myositis, retinitis, encephalopathy, and lymphadenopathy. In some people, especially those with a compromised immune system, the disease can be fatal.
Recommended tests for diagnosis:
The diagnosis is based on molecular diagnostic methods (PCR).
Tests in IVAMI:
- Molecular diagnosis (PCR), to detect DNA of Bartonella clarridgeiae.
- Whole blood collected with EDTA (2 to 5 mL).
Preservation and shipment of sample:
- Refrigerated (preferred) for less than 2 days.
- Frozen: over 2 days.
- Molecular diagnosis (PCR): 24 to 48 hours.
Cost of the test: