Ancylostoma spp. (A. caninum, A. braziliense, A. ceylanicum, A. tubaeforme): Microscopic exam and molecular diagnostics (PCR).
Ancylostoma spp is an intestinal nematode that affects dogs, cats and other canids such as foxes, coyotes and wolves. These parasites do not affect cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses or birds. The species most veterinary importance are:
- Ancylostoma caninum, which parasitize dogs and other canids such as foxes, coyotes and wolves worldwide. Very occasionally parasitize cats and humans.
- Ancylostoma Braziliense, which parasitize dogs and cats, wild canids and occasionally humans. It occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of America and Asia.
- Ancylostoma tubaeforme, which parasitize specifically cats and occurs worldwide.
- Ancylostoma ceylanicum, which parasitize wild canids and occasionally dogs in Asia and some countries of America.
Ancylostoma has a complex life cycle. After removal of eggs in the feces, the larvae develop inside and hatch in two to nine days. They complete their development stage infective larvae of L-III on the outside, where they await the passage of a suitable host. Larvae can survive for weeks in damp and cool soils, but do not survive long at extreme temperatures or in dry soils. In addition to the end hosts (dogs, cats, foxes) can also infect rodents (rats, mice) as secondary hosts. They do not complete the development to adults, but spend the end host when he hunts and eats. That is when the larvae penetrate the end or intermediate host by direct ingestion of water, solids or contaminated prey, or through the skin.
After ingestion by the dog or cat, most L-III larvae directly reach the intestine where they complete development adults, are installed by attaching to the intestinal wall and begin to produce eggs. However, some larvae penetrate into the body and initiate a migration across different organs (larva migrans), to finally reach the trachea and, after reaching the mouth again be swallowed. During this migration can become entrenched in muscle, fat or other tissues and remain dormant indefinitely. For its part, the larvae penetrate the skin reach the circulatory system into the lungs and through the windpipe, by coughing or sneezing reach the mouth to be swallowed. From there continue to the small intestine where they attach, complete development adults and begin laying eggs. Once reactivated, the larvae dormant in tissues can reach the mammary glands of infected mothers and their young through milk or through the uterus and cause intrauterine infection.
This causes gastrointestinal nematode hookworm. Ancylostoma infection can be especially severe in dogs. Worms produce an anticoagulant in saliva to feed blood without coagulate the wound. When moving, the wound is still bleeding left with consequent bleeding. As a result, anemia can be caused by blood loss can be severe and even fatal. In addition, vomiting and diarrhea often occur with dark stools (melena), pale mucous membranes, dry hair tousled and apathy. In young animals are significantly altered growth and development. Migratory larvae in the lungs can cause coughing and pneumonia.
In humans, it is not transmitted by direct contact from pets or their feces, but by walking barefoot in infected with larvae of Ancylostoma places. In these cases, the larvae migrate through the skin (cutaneous larva migrans) which leave a trail of red lines beneath the skin, itching and sometimes can be opened and infected. Overall, the larvae end up dying in a few weeks. It 's pretty rare that these larvae reach other organs in humans.
Recommended tests for diagnosis:
The diagnosis of Ancylostoma spp. It is based on stool test to identify deleted by females eggs.
Tests in IVAMI:
- Microscopic examination for observing Ancylostoma spp.
- Molecular diagnostics for species identification.
- Stool sample.
Preservation and shipment of sample:
- Refrigerated (preferred) for less than 2 days.
- Microscopic examination: 24 hours.
Cost of the test: