Virus in bivalve molluscs: interest and justification for their detection.
Bivalve molluscs filtered several liters of water a day for food, so can concentrate pathogenic microorganisms. There are purification systems these molluscs before consumption, but indicators of pollution usual, for reasons of technical laboratory resources are only bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. However, there is no correlation between clearance of bacteria and viruses, being these more resilient and slower elimination. For this reason, the only way to know the risks of transmission of virus through eating raw or undercooked bivalve molluscs eaten as with oysters and clams, is research that may contain viruses.
There are several human viruses, producers of gastroenteritis or hepatitis, which are removed from the people through feces, which can pass sewage, and even survive the purification systems of the same. For this reason, they can infect shellfish bred in places where urban effluents reach, although they have been released. Viruses that can cause problems, the two most important are: Norovirus and hepatitis A. In addition, other producers can be transmitted gastroenteritis virus as Enteroviruses, astrovirus, hepatitis E virus, Adenovirus enteric, Rotavirus, etc.
Noroviruses are the most common virus gastroenteritis producers; and hepatitis A is important for being implicated in outbreaks of infectious hepatitis.
Tests in IVAMI
- Norovirus: detection by RT-PCR and determination genogroup and / or genotype.
- Hepatitis A virus: Detection by RT-PCR in real time.
- Enterovirus: detection by RT-PCR and typed by sequencing.
- Astrovirus: detection by RT-PCR.
- Hepatitis E virus: Detection by RT-PCR.
- Enteric Adenovirus: PCR detection.
Preservation and shipment of sample:
Refrigerated (preferred) for less than 2 days.
Frozen: over 2 days.
Cost of testing: